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The era of world war: Citizenship between democracy and the racial state

In a memorandum presented by the Spanish government in September , entitled Towards European Citizenship , Felipe Gonzalez made a strong commitment to making up for the democratic deficit. These texts served as basic principles for the work towards preparing the new treaty, which was undertaken by the intergovernmental conference in This citizenship, which had no obligations and was superimposed on national citizenships, offered limited rights: the right of residence and free movement within EU territory, the right to vote and stand for local and European elections in the member state of residence, the right of protection for diplomatic and consular authorities from third countries, the right to petition before the European Parliament, and the right to have recourse to the European mediator.

The second tool for bringing the different peoples of Europe together around the political project was the European Parliament. It was also considerably strengthened by the Maastricht Treaty in February , with the introduction of co-decision enabling it to become a major actor in the governance process. However, the nation-based voting system was not called into question. The gradual emergence of the dimensions of citizenship in the construction of Europe resulted from the political necessity of strengthening popular support for the European project.

This idea, which was widely shared by the federalists, was gradually adopted by the member states, but with difficulty and through gradual stages. European citizenship remains secondary by superimposing itself on national citizenships, and by granting limited rights based on freedom of movement. This is certainly a first step, but one that has not been pursued, for the reforms of the treaties of , , and added nothing to the matter, even though the Court of Justice of the European Union strengthened European citizenship through its broad interpretation and bold jurisprudence.

The problematic results of the various referendums organized since have only reinforced the prudence of governments. The sense of belonging to the European Union continues to be problematic twenty years after its creation.

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Immigration and Citizenship in an Enlarged European Union

High Representative. Foreign relations of EU Member States. Other countries Atlas. If parents are not married, however, a father cannot pass on Austrian citizenship, whereas a mother can should the parents happen to marry at some time after birth, citizenship is automatically granted to child retroactively.

At least one parent is a Bulgarian citizen Any person of Bulgarian ethnicity; Also, member of a historical Bulgarian ethnic community e. Naturalisation conditions. Persons who have made exceptional contributions to France civil, scientific, economic, cultural, sports. The continuous residence condition is waived for: Persons who have served in the French military. Persons who are refugees in France.

Persons for whom French is their mother tongue or who have been enrolled for 5 years in a French-language institution in a country where the official language or one of the official languages is French. The foreign parents born and grown up abroad cannot have dual citizenship themselves. Rules are in place that permit the recognition of Italian nationality for many members of the Italian diaspora, even generations after departure. The rules are complex. After this, Italian citizen fathers could pass down citizenship.

A child gaining another citizenship by birth may also gain Italian citizenship by parentage, with no interference. A father's later naturalisation also retroactively annulled the child's citizenship if the child was born before Certain descendants of Polish citizens, even after multiple generations, can apply for recognition: Polish citizenship begins Acquisition of foreign citizenship prior to led to the loss of Polish nationality.

These children can pass on nationality as well. That form of transmission of nationality, combining descent from a Portuguese parent and birth in Portugal is the main form of transmission of the Portuguese nationality. No registration is necessary for the transmission of nationality in that case. Nationality is also recognised by the law itself at birth to a child born outside Portugal, provided that the said child has at least one Portuguese parent, and the birth takes place outside Portugal due to the parent's service to the Portuguese State abroad.

No registration is necessary for the transmission of nationality in that case, Nationality retroactive to the moment of birth is recognised by the law to a person born outside Portugal if at least one of the birth parents is a Portuguese national, but only if that person's birth is registered before the Portuguese Civil Registry or if a declaration by that person, stating that he or she wants to be a Portuguese citizen, is lodged with the Portuguese Civil Registry. The registration of the birth can be applied for, as a matter of right, at any time during the person's life, by the parents, by another legal guardian of a minor, or by the person himself, if the person is already of age 18 years old or older , and also by the legal guardian of an incapacitated adult.

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The registration of the birth or of the declaration, can be made at any time during the person's life, but the descendants of that person cannot ask for the registration under this rule after that person is dead. Thus, if one generation is skipped, the next generation cannot register under this rule. Registration can be made either in Portugal or by means of a Portuguese Consulate abroad. If the registration is applied to by means of a Consulate, the Consulate processes the request and sends the necessary papers to the central registry office of the Portuguese Civil Registry in Lisbon.

Deepening Contradictions in Social Rights and Migration Policy

Given that the registration produces legal effects retroactive to the moment of birth, the person, once registered as a Portuguese citizen, is recognised by law as a natural born citizen. Sons and daughters of that person, even if born before the moment of that person's registration, and even if born outside Portugal are therefore themselves able to apply for registration as Portuguese citizens, because their parent is a Portuguese citizen since birth.

EU Citizenship And Migration

Accordingly, this form of transmission of nationality, combining descent and registration, allows for the transmission of Portuguese nationality by parentage from generation to generation indefinitely, even if the members of the successive generations are born outside Portugal and never reside in Portugal, provided that registration is not skipped by one generation.

Many descendants of Portuguese immigrants, especially in Brazil and other Lusophone countries, hold dual nationality, being recognised as natural born Portuguese citizens upon registration under that rule. Nationality retroactive to the moment of birth is recognized by law upon registration to a grandson or granddaughter of a Portuguese citizen who, having demonstrated that he or she has an effective connection to the Portuguese national community, declares to the Portuguese Civil Registry his or her will to become a Portuguese citizen, provided that, at the time of such declaration, the person has had no criminal conviction for a crime punishable under Portuguese law with a prison term of 3 years or more.

The effective connection to the Portuguese national community is assumed by the law itself in certain cases legal residence in Portugal for three years with registration as a taxpayer and as a user of the national health service, plus knowledge of the Portuguese language, or legal residence in Portugal for five years , and in other cases ownership of real estate in Portugal, or constant travel to Portugal, or membership of Portuguese cultural associations abroad, or legal residence in Portugal for less than three years, etc.

Once connection to the national community is ascertained either by the Registrar recognising that the law itself assumes such connection or by the decision of the Justice Minister interested person is then invited to register his or her birth at the Portuguese Civil Registry, and the attribution of nationality becomes a matter of right. The process becomes moot if the interested party does not follow through with the birth registration within six months of being notified to do so. Once the birth is registered, the interested person is thereafter recognized as a natural-born citizen.

This form of attribution of nationality for grandchildren of Portuguese citizens, created in , combining descent and registration of birth but requiring evidence of effective connection to the Portuguese community, is available for descendants of Portuguese nationals who otherwise would not be able to become natural-born citizens because the registration of one generation was missed. Because the nationality is retroactive to the moment of birth, sons and daughters of that new citizen, even if born before registration and outside Portugal, then become themselves able to be recognized as natural-born citizens as a matter of right, by having their births registered under the rule of registration for sons and daughters of Portuguese citizens.

Naturalisation can be granted at the State's discretion to persons who are of age and who reside in Portugal for at least six years on a valid permit, provided that they demonstrate knowledge of the Portuguese language and have never been convicted of a crime punishable under Portuguese law with a prison term of 3 years or more. Naturalisation can be granted to persons who do not reside in Portugal, or who do not satisfy the condition of residing in Portugal for at least six years on a valid permit, provided that the person applying is a second degree relative grandson or granddaughter, or a sibling of a Portuguese citizen.

Minors born in Portugal to foreign parents can by be granted Portuguese Nationality by the Government, if, at the time of the request made on their behalf by their legal representatives, they have completed the first cycle of the basic education in Portugal, and if one of the parents legally resides in Portugal for at least five years. The requirements of being of age at the time of the request and of legally residing in Portugal for at least six years are waived with respect to a minor meeting those conditions, but the minor must still demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the Portuguese language, and must not have been convicted to crimes that carry under Portuguese law a prison penalty of three years or more.

Persons with a Romanian ancestor up to 3 generations back may be eligible for citizenship: Persons with at least one parent, grandparent or great-grandparent, born anytime before in a location that was in the Kingdom of Romania between and including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina and can demonstrate competence in the Romanian language, are eligible for restoration of citizenship.

Persons with a parent or grandparent still registered as a Romanian citizen, may apply for clarification of their own citizenship. Romanian citizenship is NOT automatically lost by naturalisation to a foreign country.

The Politics of Citizenship in Europe in an Era of Integration Challenges |

Person: whose mother is a Swedish citizen, or born in Sweden whose father is a Swedish citizen whose father is a Swedish citizen and married to the mother also later marriage. See also: Withdrawal from the European Union. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Brexit. Further information: Opt-outs in the European Union. European Union portal.